The gathering, transportation, and delivery of oil and gas pose technical, regulatory, and humanistic social sciences challenges as we transform our oil and gas energy mix. Infrastructure that has existed for many years will be challenged in terms of materials and integrity, flow capacity and delivery, and the upgrades that are required. New systems will be required in new regions and across borders. International delivery and participation in new markets such as international LNG and off-shore oil and gas and new geographies never contemplated before. Scientific, engineering, policy, and human sciences will all be required for the necessary solutions to be developed.

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